Jinn (jinn), also Romanized as djinn or Anglicized as genies (with the more broad meaning of spirits or demons, depending on source), are supernatural creatures in early pre-Islamic Arabian and later Islamic mythology and theology. Like humans, they are created with fitra, born as believers, their surroundings then change them. Since jinn are neither innately evil nor innately good, Islam acknowledged spirits from other religions, and was able to adapt spirits from other religions during its expansion. Jinn are not a strictly Islamic concept; they may represent several pagan beliefs integrated into Islam.
In an Islamic context, the term jinn is used for both a collective designation for any supernatural creature and also to refer to a specific type of supernatural creature. Therefore, jinn are often mentioned together with devils/demons (shayāṭīn). Both devils and jinn feature in folklore and are held responsible for misfortune, possession and diseases. However, the jinn are sometimes supportive and benevolent. They are mentioned frequently in magical works throughout the Islamic world, to be summoned and bound to a sorcerer, but also in zoological treatises as animals with a subtle body.
Jinn is an Arabic collective noun deriving from the Semitic root jnn (Arabic: جَنّ / جُنّ, jann), whose primary meaning is “to hide” or “to adapt”. Some authors interpret the word to mean, literally, “beings that are concealed from the senses”. Cognates include the Arabic majnūn (“possessed”, or generally “insane”), jannah (“garden”, “eden” also “heaven”), and janīn (“embryo”). Jinn is properly treated as a plural (however in Classical Arabic, may also appear as jānn), with the singular being jinnī.
The origin of the word jinn remains uncertain. Some scholars relate the Arabic term jinn to the Latin genius, as a result of syncretism during the reign of the Roman empire under Tiberius Augustus, but this derivation is also disputed. Another suggestion holds that jinn may be derived from Aramaic “ginnaya” with the meaning of “tutelary deity”, or also “garden”. Others claim a Persian origin of the word, in the form of the Avestic “Jaini”, a wicked (female) spirit. Jaini were among various creatures in the possibly even pre-Zoroastrian mythology of peoples of Iran.
The Anglicized form genie is a borrowing of the French génie, from the Latin genius, a guardian spirit of people and places in Roman religion. It first appeared in 18th-century translations of the Thousand and One Nights from the French, where it had been used owing to its rough similarity in sound and sense and further applies to benevolent intermediary spirits, in contrast to the malevolent spirits called demon and heavenly angels, in literature. In Assyrian art, creatures ontologically between humans and divinities are also called genie.
The winged genie in the bucket and cone motif, depicting a demi-divine entity, probably a forerunner of the pre-Islamic tutelary deities, who became the jinn in Islam. Relief from the north wall of the Palace of king Sargon II at Dur Sharrukin, 713–716 BC.
The exact origins of belief in jinn are not entirely clear. Some scholars of the Middle East hold that they originated as malevolent spirits residing in deserts and unclean places, who often took the forms of animals; others hold that they were originally pagan nature deities who gradually became marginalized as other deities took greater importance. Still, jinn had been worshipped by many Arabs during the Pre-Islamic period, but, unlike gods, jinn were not regarded as immortal. But although their mortality ranks them lower than gods, it seems veneration of jinn had played more importance in the everyday life of pre-Islamic Arabs than the gods themselves. According to common Arabian belief, soothsayers, pre-Islamic philosophers, and poets were inspired by the jinn. Their culture and society were analogous to that pre-Islamic Arabian culture, with tribal leaders, protected their allies and avenge murder for any member of their tribe or allies. Although the powers of jinn exceed those of humans, it is conceivable a man could kill a jinni in single combat. Jinn were thought to shift into different shapes, but were feared especially in their invisible form, since when they could attack without being seen. Jinn were also feared because they had been thought to be responsible for various diseases and mental illnesses. Julius Wellhausen observed that such spirits were thought to inhabit desolate, dingy, and dark places and that they were feared. One had to protect oneself from them, but they were not the objects of a true cult. Some scholars argue that angels and demons were introduced by Muhammad to Arabia and did not exist among the jinn. On the other hand, Amira El-Zein argues that angels were known to the pagan Arabs, but the term jinn was used for all kinds of supernatural entities among various religions and cults; thus, Zoroastrian, Christian, and Jewish angels and demons were conflated with “jinn”. Al-Jahiz credits the pre-Islamic Arabs with believing that the society of jinn constitutes several tribes and groups and some natural events were attributed to them, such as storms. They also thought jinn could protect, marry, kidnap, possess and kill people.
Jinn are mentioned approximately 29 times in the Quran. In Islamic tradition, Muhammad was sent as a prophet to both human and jinn communities, and that prophets and messengers were sent to both communities. Traditionally Surah 72, named after them (Al-Jinn), is held to tell about the revelation to jinn and several stories mention one of Muhammad’s followers accompanied him, witnessing the revelation to the jinn. They appear with different attitudes. In the story of Solomon, they appear as nature spirits comparable to Talmudic shedim. Solomon was gifted by God to talk to animals and spirits. God granted him authority over the rebellious jinn and devils forcing them to build the First Temple. In other instances, the Quran tells about Pagan Arabs, calling jinn for help, instead of God. The Quran reduced the status of jinn from that of tutelary deities to that of minor spirits, usually paralleling humans. In this regard, the jinn appear often paired with humans. To assert a strict monotheism and the Islamic concept of Tauhid, all affinities between the jinn and God were denied, thus jinn were placed parallel to humans, also subject to God’s judgment and afterlife. They are also mentioned in collections of canonical hadiths. One hadith divides them into three groups, with one type flying through the air; another that are snakes and dogs; and a third that moves from place to place like human.
Belief in jinn is not included among the six articles of Islamic faith, as belief in angels is, however at least many Muslim scholars believe it essential to the Islamic faith. In Quranic interpretation, the term jinn can be used in two different ways:
As invisible entities, who roamed the earth before Adam, created by God out of a “mixture of fire” or “smokeless fire” (mārijin min nār) noted in Surah Ar-Rahman in the Qur’an. They are believed to resemble humans in that they eat and drink, have children and die, are subject to judgment, so will either be sent to heaven or hell according to their deeds, but they were much faster and stronger than humans. This jinn are distinct from an angelic tribe called Al-jinn, named after Jannah (the Gardens), heavenly creatures created out of the fires of samūm (“poisonous fire”) noted in Surah Al-Waqi’ah in the Qur’an, in contrast to the genus of jinn created out of mixture of fire, who waged war against the genus of jinn and regarded as able to sin, unlike their light created counterpart.
As the opposite of al-Ins (something in shape) referring to any object that cannot be detected by human sensory organs, including angels, demons and the interior of human beings. Accordingly, every demon and every angel is also a jinn, but not every jinn is an angel or a demon. Al-Jahiz categorizes the jinn in his work Kitab al-Hayawan as follows: “If he is pure, clean, untouched by any defilement, being entirely good, he is an angel, if he is faithless, dishonest, hostile, wicked, he is demon, if he succeeds in supporting an edifice, lifting a heavy weight and listening at the doors of Heaven he is a marid and if he more than this, he is an ifrit”.
Related to common traditions, the angels were created on Wednesday, the jinn on Thursday and humans on Friday, but not the very next day, rather more than 1000 years later, respectively. The community of the jinn race were like those of humans, but then corruption and injustice among them increased and all warnings sent by God were ignored. Consequently, God sent his angels to battle the infidel jinn. Just a few survived, and were ousted to far islands or to the mountains. With the revelation of Islam, the jinn were given a new chance to access salvation. But because of their prior creation, the jinn would attribute themselves to a superiority over humans and envy them for their place and rank on earth. The different jinn known in Islamic folklore are disregarded among most mufassirs – authors of tafsir, Tabari being an exception, yet he is not specific about them, probably due to lack of theological significance. However, since Tabari is one of the earliest commentators, the several jinn have been known.
Although the Quran reduced the status of jinn from that of tutelary deities to merely spirits, placed parallel to humans, subject to God’s judgment and the process of life, death and afterlife, they were not consequently equated with demons. When Islam spread outside of Arabia, belief in the jinn was assimilated with local belief about spirits and deities from Iran, Africa, Turkey and India.
Early Persian translations of the Quran identified the jinn either with peris or divs depending on their moral behavior. However, such identifications of jinn with spirits of another culture are not universal. Some of the pre-Islamic spirits remained. Peris and divs are frequently attested as distinct from jinn among Muslim lore, but since both div as well as jinn are associated with demonic and the ability to transform themselves, they overlap sometimes.
Especially Morocco has many possession traditions, including exorcism rituals, despite the fact, jinn’s ability to possess humans is not mentioned in canonical Islamic scriptures directly. Jinn can not enter a person whenever the jinn wants, rather the victim must be predisposed for possession in a state of dha’iyfah (“weakness”). Feelings of insecurity, mental instability, unhappy love and depression (being “tired from the soul”) are forms of dha’iyfah.
In Artas (Bethlemhem) oral beliefs, the jinn form societies beneath the ground. Envying humans, they frequently ascend to the surface, causing sickness to children, snatching food and taking revenge when humans mistreat them. Some jinn are nevertheless benevolent towards humans, teaching humans a moral lesson.
In Sindh the concept of the jinni was introduced when Islam became acceptable and “Jinn” has become a common part of local folklore, also including stories of both male jinn called “jinn” and female jinn called “Jiniri”. Folk stories of female jinn include stories such as the Jejhal Jiniri. Although, due to the cultural influence, the concept of jinn may vary, all share some common features. The jinn are believed to live in societies resembling those of humans, practicing religion (including Islam, Christianity and Judaism), having emotions, needing to eat and drink, and can procreate and raise families. Additionally, they fear iron, generally appear in desolate or abandoned places, and are stronger and faster than humans. Since the jinn share the earth with humans, Muslims are often cautious not to accidentally hurt an innocent jinni by uttering “destur” (permission), before sprinkling hot water. Generally, jinn are thought to eat bones and prefer rotten flesh over fresh flesh.
In Mughal or Urdu cultures Jinn often appear to be obese characters and refer to their masters as “Aqa”.
In later Albanian lore, jinn (Xhindi) live either on earth or under the surface and may possess people who have insulted them, for example if their children are trodden upon or hot water thrown on them.
The concept of Jinn was also prevalent in Ottoman society and much about their beliefs is yet to be known.
In Turkic lore, jinn (Turkish: Cin) are often paired with in, another demonic entity, sharing many characteristics with the jinn.
The black king of the djinns, Al-Malik al-Aswad, from the late 14th-century Book of Wonders
The composition and existence of jinn is the subject of various debates during the Middle Ages. According to Al-Shafi’i (founder of Shafi‘i schools), the invisibility of jinn is so certain that anyone who thinks they have seen one is ineligible to give legal testimony—unless they are a Prophet. According to Ashari, the existence of jinn cannot be proven, because arguments concerning the existence of jinn are beyond human comprehension. Adepts of Ashʿari theology explained jinn are invisible to humans, because they lack the appropriate sense organs to envision them. Sceptics argued, doubting the existence of jinn, if jinn exist, their bodies must either be ethereal or made of solid material; if they were composed of the former, they would not able to do hard work, like carrying heavy stones. If they were composed of the latter, they would be visible to any human with functional eyes. Therefore, sceptics refused to believe in a literal reading on jinn in Islamic sacred texts, preferring to view them as “unruly men” or metaphorical. On the other hand, advocates of belief in jinn assert that God’s creation can exceed the human mind; thus, jinn are beyond human understanding. Since they are mentioned in Islamic texts, scholars such as Ibn Taimiyya and Ibn Hazm prohibit the denial of jinn. They also refer to spirits and demons among the Christians, Zoroastrians and Jews to “prove” their existence. Ibn Taymiyya believed the jinn to be generally “ignorant, untruthful, oppressive and treacherous”. He held that the jinn account for much of the “magic” that is perceived by humans, cooperating with magicians to lift items in the air, delivering hidden truths to fortune tellers, and mimicking the voices of deceased humans during seances.
Other critics, such as Jahiz and Mas’udi, related sightings of jinn to psychological causes. According to Mas’udi, the jinn as described by traditional scholars, are not a priori false, but improbable. Jahiz states in his work Kitab al-Hayawan that loneliness induces humans to mind-games and wishful thinking, causing waswās (“devilish whisperings in the mind”, traditionally thought to be caused by Satan). If he is afraid, he may see things that are not real. These alleged appearances are told to other generations in bedtime stories and poems, and with children of the next generation growing up with such stories, when they are afraid or lonely, they remember these stories, encouraging their imaginations and causing another alleged sighting of jinn. However, Jahiz is less critical about jinn and demons than Mas’udi, stating human fantasy at least encourage people to imagine such creatures. The Futūḥāt al-Makkiyyah, attributed to the famous Sufi Shaikh Ibn Arabi, reconciles a literal existence of jinn with the imaginal, describing the appearance of jinn as a reflection of the observer and the place they are found. They differ from the angels, which due to their closeness to heaven reflect the spheres of the divine, mainly in their distance to the earth and the heavens, stating: “Only this much is different: The spirits of the jinn are lower spirits, while the spirits of angels are heavenly spirits”. The jinn share, due to their intermediary abode both angelic and human traits. Because jinn are closer to the material realm, it would be easier for human to contact a jinn, than an angel.
In folk literature
The jinn can be found in the One Thousand and One Nights story of “The Fisherman and the Jinni”; more than three different types of jinn are described in the story of Ma‘ruf the Cobbler; two jinn help young Aladdin in the story of Aladdin and the Wonderful Lamp; as Ḥasan Badr al-Dīn weeps over the grave of his father until sleep overcomes him, and he is awoken by a large group of sympathetic jinn in the Tale of ‘Alī Nūr al-Dīn and his son Badr ad-Dīn Ḥasan. In some stories, the jinn are credited with the ability of instantaneous travel (from China to Morocco in a single instant); in others, they need to fly from one place to another, though quite fast (from Baghdad to Cairo in a few hours).
Ahmadi interpret jinn not as supernatural beings, but as powerful men whose influence is felt even though they keep their distance from the common people. According to Mirza Tahir Ahmad, references to jinn could also mean microorganisms such as bacteria and viruses. Others try to reconcile the traditional perspective on jinn, with modern sciences. Fethullah Gülen, leader of Hizmet movement, had put forward the idea, that jinn may be the cause of schizophrenia and cancer and that the Quranic references to jinn on “smokeless fire” could for that matter mean “energy”. Others, while not accepting connections between illness and jinn, believe in their existence, due to their occurrences in the Quran. Many Modernists tend to reject the belief in jinn as a superstition that holds Islamic society back. References to jinn in the Quran are interpreted in their ambiguous meaning of something invisible, and might be forces or simply angels. Otherwise the importance of belief in jinn to Islamic belief in contemporary Muslim society was underscored by the judgment of apostasy by an Egyptian Sharia court in 1995 against liberal theologian Nasr Abu Zayd. Abu Zayd was declared an unbeliever of Islam for — among other things — arguing that the reason for the presence of jinn in the Quran was that they (jinn) were part of Arab culture at the time of the Quran’s revelation, rather than that they were part of God’s creation. Death threats led to Nasr Abu Zayd’s leaving Egypt several weeks later.
Contemporary Salafi tenets of Islam reject modern interpretations of jinn and adhere to literalism, arguing the threat of jinn and their ability to possess humans can be proven by Quran and Sunnah. However, many Salafis differ from their understanding of jinn from earlier accounts. Fatwas issued by Salafi scholars often repeatedly refer to a selection of Quran verses and hadith quotes, without reference to certain traditions and individual experience. Some argue that many traditions and beliefs among Muslims are excluded from Salafi theological discourse and downplays embedded Muslim beliefs as local lore, such as symptoms of jinn possession. The opinions of the prominent Saudi Muslim lecturer Muhammad Al-Munajjid, an important scholar in Salafism and founder of IslamQA, are repeated over several online sources, and is also cited by IslamOnline and Islamicity.com for information about jinn, devils and angels. Similar Islamawareness.net and IslamOnline both feature the article about jinn written by Fethullah Gulen, using a similar approach to interpret the spiritual world. Further, there is no distinction made between devils and demons and the jinn, indifferent spirits, as Salafi scholars Umar Sulaiman Al-Ashqar stated, that demons are actually simply unbelieving jinn. Further Muhammad Al-Munajjid, asserts that reciting various Quranic verses and adhkaar (devotional acts involving the repetition of short sentences glorifying God) “prescribed in Sharia (Islamic law)” can protect against jinn, associating Islamic healing rituals common across Islamic culture with shirk (polytheism). For that reason, Saudi Arabia, following the Wahhabism tradition of Salafism, imposes a death penalty for dealing with jinn to prevent sorcery and witchcraft. Though discouraged by some teachings of modern Islam, cultural beliefs about jinn remained popular among Muslim societies and their understanding of cosmology and anthropology.
Affirmation on the existence of jinn as sapient creatures living along with humans is still widespread in the Middle Eastern world and mental illnesses are still often attributed to jinn possession.
Prevalence of belief
According to a survey undertaken by the Pew Research Center in 2012, at least 86% in Morocco, 84% in Bangladesh, 63% in Turkey, 55% in Iraq, 53% in Indonesia, 47% in Thailand and 15% elsewhere in Central Asia, Muslims affirm the existence of jinn. The low rate in Central Asia might be influenced by Soviet religious oppression.
Sleep paralysis is conceptualized as a “Jinn attack” by many sleep paralysis sufferers in Egypt as discovered by Cambridge neuroscientist Baland Jalal. A scientific study found that as many as 48 percent of those who experience sleep paralysis in Egypt believe it to be an assault by the jinn. Almost all of these sleep paralysis sufferers (95%) would recite verses from the Quran during sleep paralysis to prevent future “Jinn attacks”. In addition, some (9%) would increase their daily Islamic prayer (salah) to get rid of these attacks by jinn. Sleep paralysis is generally associated with great fear in Egypt, especially if believed to be supernatural in origin.
However, despite belief in jinn being prevalent in Iran’s folklore especially among the stronger believers of Islam, some phenomena such as sleep paralysis were traditionally attributed to other supernatural beings; in the case of sleep paralysis, it was bakhtak (night hag). But at least in some areas of Iran, an epileptic seizure was thought to be a jinn attack or jinn possession, and people would try to exorcise the jinn by citing the name of Allah and using iron blades to draw protective circles around the victim. Telling jinn stories and supposed encounter recounts were a common pastime of people, similar to telling ghost stories in western cultures, until a couple of decades ago when these stories drastically fell out of fashion with the increasing penetration of digital entertainments and modern recording equipment which undermined their credibility.
Ǧinn (jinn) and shayāṭīn (demons/devils)
Both Islamic and non-Islamic scholarship generally distinguishes between angels, jinn and demons as three different types of spiritual entities in Islamic traditions. The lines between demons and jinn are often blurred. Especially in folklore, jinn share many characteristics usually associated with demons, as both are held responsible for mental illness, diseases and possession. However, such traits do not appear within the Quran or canonical hadiths. The Quran emphasizes comparison between humans and jinn as taqalan (accountable ones, that means they have free-will and will be judged according to their deeds). Since the demons are exclusively evil, they are not among taqalan, thus like angels, their destiny is prescribed. The jinn share many characteristics with humans, but demons lack. Folklore differentiates both types of creatures as well. Field researches in 2001-2002, among Sunni Muslims in Syria, recorded many oral-tales about jinn. Tales about the Devil (Iblīs) and his lesser demons (shayāṭīn) barely appeared, in contrast to tales about jinn, who featured frequently in everyday stories. It seems the demons are primarily associated with their role within Islamic scriptures, as abstract forces tempting Muslims into everything disapproved by society, while jinn can be encountered by humans in lonely places. This fits the general notion that the demons whisper into the heart of humans, but do not possess them physically. Since the term shaitan is also used as an epithet to describe the taqalan (humans and jinn), naming malevolent jinn also shayāṭīn in some sources, it is sometimes difficult to hold them apart. Satan and his hosts of demons (shayatin) generally appear in traditions associated with Jewish and Christian narratives, while jinn represent entities of polytheistic background.
Jinn are not supernatural in the sense of being purely spiritual and transcendent to nature; while they are believed to be invisible (or often invisible) they also eat, drink, sleep, breed with the opposite sex, with offspring that resemble their parents. Intercourse is not limited to the jinn alone, but also possible between human and jinn. However, the practice is despised (makruh) in Islamic law. It is disputed whether or not such intercourse can result in offspring. They are “natural” in the classical philosopical sense by consisting of an element, undergoing change, and being bound in time and space. They resemble spirits or demons in the sense of evading sensible perception, but are not of immaterial nature as Rūḥāniyya are. Thus, they interact in a tactile manner with people and objects. In scientific treatises the jinn are included and depicted as animals (hayawan) with a subtle body. The Qanoon-e-Islam, written 1832 by Sharif Ja’far, writing about jinn-belief in India, states that their body constitutes 90% of spirit and 10% of flesh. They resemble humans in many regards, their subtle matter being the only main difference. But it is this very nature that enables them to change their shape, move quickly, fly, and entering human bodies, cause epilepsy and illness, hence the temptation for humans to make them allies by means of magical practices.
Unlike the jinn in Islamic belief and folklore, jinn in Middle Eastern folktales, depicted as magical creatures, are unlike the former, generally considered to be fictional.
A Sinai desert cobra. Snakes are the animals most frequently associated with jinn. Black snakes are commonly considered as evil jinn, while white snakes as Muslim jinn.
The appearance of jinn can be divided into three major categories:
Jinn are assumed to be able to appear in shapes of various animals such as scorpions, cats, owls and onagers (wild ass). Dogs are another animal often associated with jinn, especially black dogs. However, piebald dogs are rather identified with hinn. Associations between dogs and jinn prevailed in Arabic literature, but lost its meaning in Persian scriptures. However (except for the ‘udhrut from Yemeni folklore) the jinn cannot appear in the form of wolves. The wolf is thought of as the natural predator of the jinn, who, in contrast to the jinn by his noble character, blocks their ability to vanish.
Serpents are the animals most associated with jinn. in Islamic tradition many narratives concern a serpent who was actually a jinni. The term jann refers to both a snake and jinn. The connection between jinn and serpents are strong enough, that those who believe in jinn fear killing a serpent since a jinn might avenge the murder. Also, some sources speak of killed jinn leaving a carcass similar to either a serpent or a scorpion behind. Both scorpions and serpents have been venerated in the ancient Near East. Besides serpents, other chthonic animals such as scorpions and lizards are regarded as usual forms of jinn. Further, gazelles, foxes, dogs and ostriches are associated with jinn. But these are not necessarily thought to be the embodiment of jinn, but rather their mounts i.e. mythical vehicle.
Jinn in form of storms and shadows
The jinn are also related to the wind. They may appear in mists or sandstorms. Zubayr ibn al-Awam, who is held to have accompanied Muhammad during his lecture to the jinn, is said to view the jinn as shadowy ghosts with no individual structure. According to a narration Ghazali asked Ṭabasī, famous for jinn-incantations, to reveal the jinn to him. Accordingly, Tabasi showed him the jinn, seeing them like they were “a shadow on the wall”. After Ghazali requested to speak to them, Ṭabasī stated, that for now he could not see more. Although sandstorms are believed to be caused by jinn, others, such as Abu Yahya Zakariya’ ibn Muhammad al-Qazwini and Ghazali attribute them to natural causes. Otherwise sandstorms are thought to be caused by a battle between different groups of jinn.
A common characteristic of the jinn is their lack of individuality, but they may gain individuality by materializing in human forms, such as Sakhr and several jinn known from magical writings. But also, in their anthropomorphic shape, they stay partly animal and are not fully human. Therefore, individual jinn are commonly depicted as monstrous and anthropomorphized creatures with body parts from different animals or human with animal traits. Commonly associated with jinn in human form are the Si’lah and the Ghoul. However, since they stay partly animal, their bodies are depicted as fashioned out of two or more different species. Some of them may have the hands of cats, the head of birds or wings rise from their shoulders.
In witchcraft and magical literature
Zawba’a or Zoba’ah, the jinn-king of Friday
Witchcraft (, which is also used to mean “magic, wizardry”) is often associated with jinns and afarit around the Middle East. Therefore, a sorcerer may summon a jinni and force him to perform orders. Summoned jinn may be sent to the chosen victim to cause demonic possession. Such summonings were done by invocation, by aid of talismans or by satisfying the jinn, thus to make a contract. Jinn are also regarded as assistants of soothsayers. Soothsayers reveal information from the past and present; the jinn can be a source of this information because their lifespans exceed those of humans. Another way to subjugate them is by inserting a needle to their skin or dress. Since jinn are afraid of iron, they are unable to remove it with their own power.
Ibn al-Nadim, Muslim scholar of his Kitāb al-Fihrist, describes a book that lists 70 Jinn led by Fuqtus, including several jinn appointed over each day of the week. Bayard Dodge, who translated al-Fihrist into English, notes that most of these names appear in the Testament of Solomon. A collection of late fourteenths- or early fifteenth-century magico-medical manuscripts from Ocaña, Spain describes a different set of 72 jinn (termed “Tayaliq”) again under Fuqtus (here named “Fayqayțūš” or Fiqitush), blaming them for various ailments. According to these manuscripts, each jinni was brought before King Solomon and ordered to divulge their “corruption” and “residence” while the Jinn King Fiqitush gave Solomon a recipe for curing the ailments associated with each jinni as they confessed their transgressions.
A disseminated treatise on the occult, written by al-Ṭabasī, called Shāmil, deals with subjugating demons and jinn by incantations, charms and the combination of written and recited formulae and to obtain supernatural powers through their aid. Al-Ṭabasī distinguished between licit and illicit magic, the latter founded on disbelief, while the first on purity.
Seven kings of the Jinn are traditionally associated with days of the week. They are also attested in the Book of Wonders. Although many passages are damaged, they remain in Ottoman copies. These jinn-kings (sometimes afarit instead) are invoked to legitimate spells performed by amulets.
During the Rwandan genocide, both Hutus and Tutsis avoided searching local Rwandan Muslim neighborhoods because they widely believed the myth that local Muslims and mosques were protected by the power of Islamic magic and the efficacious jinn. In the Rwandan city of Cyangugu, arsonists ran away instead of destroying the mosque because they feared the wrath of the jinn, whom they believed were guarding the mosque.
Ancient Mesopotamian religion
Beliefs in entities similar to the jinn are found throughout pre-Islamic Middle Eastern cultures. The ancient Sumerians believed in Pazuzu, a wind demon, :147–148 who was shown with “a rather canine face with abnormally bulging eyes, a scaly body, a snake-headed penis, the talons of a bird and usually wings.” :147 The ancient Babylonians believed in utukku, a class of demons which were believed to haunt remote wildernesses, graveyards, mountains, and the sea, all locations where jinn were later thought to reside. The Babylonians also believed in the Rabisu, a vampiric demon believed to leap out and attack travelers at unfrequented locations, similar to the post-Islamic ghūl, a specific kind of jinn whose name is etymologically related to that of the Sumerian galla, a class of Underworld demon.
Lamashtu, also known as Labartu, was a divine demoness said to devour human infants. :115 Lamassu, also known as Shedu, were guardian spirits, sometimes with evil propensities. :115–116 The Assyrians believed in the Alû, sometimes described as a wind demon residing in desolate ruins who would sneak into people’s houses at night and steal their sleep. In the ancient Syrian city of Palmyra, entities similar to jinn were known as ginnayê, an Aramaic name which may be etymologically derived from the name of the genii from Roman mythology. Like jinn among modern-day Bedouin, ginnayê were thought to resemble humans. They protected caravans, cattle, and villages in the desert and tutelary shrines were kept in their honor. They were frequently invoked in pairs.
The description of jinn is almost identical with that of the shedim from Jewish mythology. As with the jinn, some of whom follow the law brought by Muhammad, some of the shedim are believed to be followers of the law of Moses and consequently good. Both are said to be invisible to human eyes but are nevertheless subject to bodily desires, like procreating and the need to eat. Some Jewish sources agree with the Islamic notion that jinn inhabited the world before humans. Asmodeus appears both as an individual of the jinn or shedim, as an antagonist of Solomon. :120
As in Islam, the idea of spiritual entities converting to one’s own religion can be found in Buddhism. According to lore, Buddha preached to Devas and Asura, spiritual entities who, like humans, are subject to the cycle of life, and who resemble the Islamic notion of jinn, who are also ontologically placed among humans in regard to eschatological destiny.
Van Dyck’s Arabic translation of the Old Testament uses the alternative collective plural “jann” (translation: al-jānn) to render the Hebrew word usually translated into English as “familiar spirit” in several places (Leviticus 19:31, 20:6, 1 Samuel 28:3,7,9, 1 Chronicles 10:13).
Some scholars evaluated whether the jinn might be compared to fallen angels in Christian traditions. Comparable to Augustine’s descriptions of fallen angels as ethereal, jinn seem to be considered as the same substance. Although the fallen angels are not absent in the Quran, the jinn nevertheless differ in their major characteristics from that of fallen angels: While fallen angels fell from heaven, the jinn did not, but try to climb up to it in order to receive the news of the angels.